This is the new Arduino Uno R3 with a free transparent case. In addition to all the features of the previous board, the Uno uses an ATmega16U2 instead of the 8U2 found on the Uno (or the FTDI found on previous generations). This allows for faster transfer rates and more memory. No drivers needed for Linux or Mac and the ability to have the Uno show up as a keyboard, mouse, joystick, etc. Never fear for accidental electrical discharge, either since the Uno R3 also includes a plastic base plate to protect it!
The Uno R3 also adds SDA and SCL pins next to the AREF. In addition, there are two new pins placed near the RESET pin. One is the IOREF that allow the shields to adapt to the voltage provided from the board. The other is a not connected and is reserved for future purposes. The Uno R3 works with all existing shields but can adapt to new shields which use these additional pins.
Arduino is an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple i/o board and a development environment that implements the / language. Arduino can be used to develop stand-alone interactive objects or can be connected to software on your computer (e.g. Flash, Processing, MaxMSP). The open-source IDE can be downloaded for free (currently for Mac OS X, Windows, and Linux).